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Above the Zebra Shark

1. The adult zebra shark grows up to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) long. When the pups are born from a zebra shark they are 20–36 cm (8–14 in) long. Males and females are not dimorphic in size. The lifespan has been estimated to be 25–30 years in the wild

2. There are five distinctive ridges running along the body in adults, one along the dorsal midline and two on the sides. The dorsal midline ridge merges into the first dorsal fin, placed about halfway along the body and twice the size of the second dorsal fin. The pectoral fins are large and broad the pelvic and anal fins are much smaller but larger than the second dorsal fin. The caudal fin is almost as long as the rest of the body, with a barely developed lower lobe and a strong ventral notch near the tip of the upper lobe. The eyes are small and placed on the sides of the head the spiracles are located behind them and are as large or larger. The last 3 of the 5 short gill slits are situated over the pectoral fin bases and the fourth and fifth slits are much closer together than the others. Each nostril has a short barbel and a groove running from it to the mouth. The mouth is nearly straight, with three lobes on the lower lip and furrows at the corners. There are 28–33 tooth rows in the upper jaw and 22–32 tooth rows in the lower jaw each tooth has a large central cusp flanked by two smaller ones. The color pattern in young sharks is dark brown above and light yellow below, with vertical yellow stripes and spots the dark areas begin to break up, changing the general pattern from light-on-dark stripes to dark-on-light spots.

3. Zebra sharks  spend most of the day resting on the sea floor. They become more active at night when food becomes available. Zebra sharks are strong and agile swimmers, propelling themselves they hunt for molluscs, crustaceans, small bony fishes, and possibly sea snakes inside holes and crevices in the reef.

4. Though solitary for most of the year, they form large seasonal aggregations.

5. The zebra shark is oviparous females produce several dozen large egg capsules, which she anchors to underwater structures via adhesive tendrils.

6. The zebra shark is found in the tropical waters of the Indo-Pacific  region, from South Africa to the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf (including Madagascar  and the Maldives), to India and Southeast Asia (including Indonesia, the Philippines, and Palau), northward to Taiwan and Japan, eastward to New Caledonia and Tonga, and southward to northern Australia.

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Above the Bramble shark

1. The bramble shark is covered with large thorn-like denticles and hence the name “bramble” shark.

2. The bramble sharks have a long cylindrical body covered with large protruding denticles, no anal fin and two small dorsal fins placed far on the back just before the tail and five pairs of gill slits. They can reach a maximum length of 3.94 m (13 ft) and weigh 500 lbs (227 kg).

3. The bramble shark is found in the Western Atlantic from Georgia to Maine, Argentina, the Eastern Atlantic from South Africa north to Norway, most of the Mediterranean, Mozambique, the Arabian Sea near Oman, the Indian Ocean of south India and Sri Lanka, the Pacific Ocean near Honshū, Japan, south Australia, and New Zealand.

4. The bramble shark is a deep water shark common only in the Eastern Atlantic from Portugal north, and the North Sea. It lives on the bottom of the sea between 18 to 900 m deep.

5. It eats small sharks, bony fish, and crabs.

6. It is ovoviviparous with up to 24 pups per litter.
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Above the Prickly Shark

1. The prickly shark has no anal fin and two small spineless dorsal fins set far on the back by the tail. Its maximum length is 4 m and it looks very similar to the bramble shark.

2. The prickly shark is a species of large bottom dwelling shark from the Pacific Ocean.

3. The prickly shark occurs throughout the Pacific, including Taiwan, New Zealand, Hawaii, California and Chile.

4. The prickly shark  eats other sharks and bony fish, octopus, squid, and even catshark.

5. The reproduction is ovoviviparous, with up to 114 pups in a litter.

6. The prickly shark lives along shelves and slopes at depths between 11 and 425 m

Above the Spotted wobbegong shark

1. Wobbegongs are bottom-dwelling sharks and spend much of their time resting on the sea floor. Most species have a maximum length of 1.25 meters (4.1 ft) or less, but the largest, the spotted wobbegong, grows up to 3.2 metres (10 ft).

2. Wobbegongs are well camouflaged with a pattern of bold markings which resembles a carpet. Because of this striking pattern, wobbegongs and their close relatives are often referred to as carpet sharks. The camouflage is improved by the presence of small weed like whiskers lobes surrounding the wobbegong’s jaw, which it uses to entice and catch fish. Wobbegongs make use of their relative invisibility to hide among rocks and catch smaller fish which swim too close.

3. Wobbegongs are generally not dangerous unless they are provoked. They have bitten people who accidentally step on them in shallow water; they may also bite scuba divers or snorkellers who poke or touch them, or who block their escape route. Wobbegongs are very flexible and can easily bite a hand that is holding on to their tail.
They have many small but sharp teeth and their bite can be severe, even through a wetsuit; having once bitten, they have been known to hang on and can be very difficult to remove. To avoid being bitten, divers should avoid contact.

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Above the cat shark

1. The cat sharks or catsharks is one of 110 species on record. The cat shark is found in temperate and tropical seas worldwide, ranging from very shallow intertidal waters to depths of 2,000 meters (6,600 ft) or more, depending on species.

2. Cat sharks may be distinguished by their cat-like eyes and two small dorsal fins set far back. Most species are not particularly large, with lengths up to 60 – 70 cm or so, although the humpback cat shark, Apristurus gibbosus, from the deep waters of the South China Sea has been recorded at 4 m in length

3. Most of the species have a patterned appearance, ranging from stripes to patches to spots. They feed on invertebrates and smaller fish. Some species are ovoviviparous, but most lay eggs in tough egg-cases with curly tendrils at each end, known as mermaid’s purses.

4. The “swell sharks” of the genus Cephaloscyllium have the curious ability to fill their stomachs with water or air when threatened, increasing their girth by a factor of 2 or 3.

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Above the Goblin shark

1. The first goblin shark was found in 1897 and in 1909. people believe that the goblin is a related to a extinct sharks called Scapanorhynchus and Anomotodon. The shark got is name by it goblin like nose and face. And the species was named by Jordan in honor of avid wildlife collector Alan Owston, who acquired the first specimen from a Japanese fisherman.

2. The Goblin shark is a deep-water shark usually found near the sea bottom, at depths of around 250 m. The deepest specimen ever caught was found at 1,300 m. There are only about 45 known specimens of Mitsukurina owstoni. Most goblin sharks that have been caught  from Japan where it was first discovered, specifically in an area between Tosa Bay and Boso Peninsula. The species’ Pacific range is rather large. M. owstoni specimens have been found in the waters off South Africa, from various sites throughout the western Pacific Ocean. Goblin sharks have also been found off the coasts of Australia and New Zealand. In the Atlantic Ocean, they have been found in the western Atlantic off French Guiana, in the eastern Atlantic in the Bay of Biscay and off Madeira and Portugal. On the other side of the Atlantic, goblin sharks have been found in the Gulf of Mexico.

3. Goblin sharks can grow to 11 feet (3.3 m) long and weigh 350 lb (159 kg). They have the typical shark’s semi-fusiform body. Unlike most sharks, M. owstoni’s fins are not pointed and instead are low and rounded, with the anal and pelvic fins significantly larger than the dorsal fins. Their heterocercal tails are similar to the thresher shark’s, with the upper lobe significantly longer proportionately than other sharks’. In addition, the goblin shark’s tail lacks a ventral lobe. The pink coloration, unique among sharks, is due to blood vessels underneath a semi-transparent skin, thereby causing the coloring. The fins have a bluish appearance. Goblin sharks lack a nictitating membrane. They have no precaudal pit and no keels. The front teeth are long and smooth-edged, while the rear teeth are adapted for crushing.

4. Goblin sharks hunt by sensing the presence of prey with electro-sensitive like most shark, due to the absence of light in the deep waters where it swims. Once a shark finds its prey, it suddenly protrudes its jaws, while using a tongue-like muscle to suck the victim into its sharp front teeth. Some prey they have been known to feed on include deep-sea rockfish, cephalopods and crustaceans.

5. Next to nothing is known of the goblin shark’s reproductive habits. Even though a pregnant goblin shark has never been caught or found, as members of the order Lamniformes, they are assumed to be ovoviviparous; their eggs mature and hatch inside the mother’s body and the shark gives birth to live young.

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Above the Frilled Shark

1. The frilled shark is a dark brown or grey eel color and the six gill slits make it a wired looking shark from most sharks. It’s dorsal fin is small, anal fin large and the tail fin is highly asymmetric and the dorsal part almost unnoticeable. Its teeth are small, tricuspid and very sharp. Mature males can grow to be 1 meter (3.3 ft) – 1.1 meters (3.6 ft) in length and females can grow to be 1.4 meters (4.6 ft) – 1.5 meters (4.9 ft).  It has been recorded at up to 2 meters (6.6 ft) in length

2. The frilled shark is a species of deep-sea shark in the shark family this shark is known as a “living fossil”. It was long thought to be the only member of its family until in 2009. The frilled shark was thought to be extinct itself until it was discovered alive in Japanese waters in the 19th century. On January 21, 2007 a specimen was found alive off the coast of Japan near the Awashima Marine Park in Shizuoka, southwest of Tokyo. The shark was captured but was not adapted to live in the warm, shallow water that it was moved to. The specimen died soon after capture. Is worldwide, but they are very rarely found in shallow water. They have been reported in all oceans but are mainly found near Norway, South Africa, New Zealand, and Chile. The sharks are usually found at depths of between 50 meters (160 ft) and 1,500 meters (4,900 ft). They typically eat squid, other sharks, and deep water bony fish. The frilled shark is sometimes referred to as a living fossil partly because the species has changed little since pre-historic times.

3. The reproduction is not well-understood, but like many other sharks they bear live young with litter sizes of 2 to 12 pups, although the average is six pups. Frilled sharks have the longest gestation period currently known among animals since it remains pregnant for 3.5 years before giving birth.

4. Frilled sharks appear regularly in the catches from bottom trawling and when caught are used as food or for fishmeal. On January 21, 2007, staff at Awashima Marine Park in Shizuoka, southwest of Tokyo, were alerted by fishermen to a ‘strange eel-like fish with needle-like teeth’. The fish was identified as a pregnant female 1.6 m frilled shark and was captured by park staff who were concerned that the shark appeared to be unhealthy. They took it out of the water and put it into a salt water tank where they filmed it and took pictures of it. The shark died a few hours after capture. This rare surface appearance of a frilled shark has been attributed to the animal being unable to live in the warmer temperature water. The frilled shark living in the colder deep ocean water.

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